Gynecological Cancers- All you would like to understand

The term ‘Gynaecological Cancers’ comes with the medical condition during which cancer or tumor cells develop within the reproductive organs of a woman’s body; these include cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer.

“There are several symptoms related to gynecological cancers, each cancer type related to specific symptoms and therefore the best method to detect is getting the proper consultation done.” Says Dr. Anu Sidana who is one of the best Gurgaon based gynecologist.

Gynecological cancers are one among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Lakhs of girls are diagnosed with gynecological cancers and hence, it’s important to know about the various sorts of gynecological cancers.

Most Common Gynecological Cancers:

According to Dr. Sandeep Nayak who is Bangalore based surgical oncologist, the following sorts of gynecological cancers are quite common and affects number of girls every year:

1. Uterine cancer:

Uterine cancer is cancer that begins within the uterus and is one among the foremost common sorts of gynecological cancers. Though it can happen to anyone, some factors which increase the danger of uterine cancer are obesity, diabetes, hypertension, use of estrogen without progesterone, etc.

The Common Endometrial Carcinoma Symptoms Are:

  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause.
  • Pain within the lower abdomen that persists for quite fortnight.
  • Bleeding between periods.
  • Pain during sexual activity.

Uterine cancers are often further subdivided into endometrial cancers, uterine sarcomas, and endometrial stromal tumours. Of these, endometrial carcinoma is the commonest sort of uterine cancer and therefore the other two are quite rare. Endometrial carcinoma is additionally one among the foremost curable ones as stated by the oncologists. Endometrial cancer is diagnosed quite early in most cases and hence is treated by a laparoscopic (minimally invasive) surgery. The whole treatment requires only 2-3 days of hospital stay in most cases. Though a couple of patients of endometrial carcinoma (about 10-15%) may require further treatment within the sort of radiotherapy or a mixture of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

2. Cervical cancer:

Another quite common sort of gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer and is one among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. A number of girls in India are diagnosed with this cancer per annum, and unfortunately, because of lack of awareness, a majority of girls are diagnosed when cancer has reached advanced stages.

Some Common Cervical Cancer Symptoms Include:

  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Vaginal odour.
  • Bleeding after sexual activity.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Regular cancer screenings and Pap test for HPV detection are important for early detection. If diagnosed early, cervical cancer are often treated by radical surgery alone while those detected in advanced stages require a mixture of chemo and radiotherapy .

Vaccinating young girls for preventing HPV infection before they’re sexually active may be a very effective way to prevent cervical cancers also as many other sorts of gynecological cancers.

3. Ovarian cancer:

Ovarian cancer is another common gynecological cancer. There are three sorts of it: epithelial ovarian cancer, reproductive cell cancer, and stromal cell cancer. Of these, epithelial ovarian cancer is that the commonest one accounting for about 85 percent of all ovarian cancers.

Some Common Ovarian Cancer Symptoms Are:

  • Extreme and sudden onset of bloating.
  • Difficulty in eating or loss of appetite.
  • Increased frequency or urgency of urination.
  • Pain within the pelvic or abdominal region.

The benign epithelial ovarian tumours are often cured by surgery and the malignant ones are treated by tumour cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. One important point to notice about epithelial ovarian cancers is that they’re quite aggressive and have a bent to recur in a complicated stage. In such cases, treatment is completed either surgically or through chemotherapy.

Germ cell tumour, another sort of ovarian cancer, is typically seen in younger individuals and about 95% of those are curable by surgery alone while other cases may require additional chemotherapy. To treat reproductive cell tumour in young patients, fertility preservation therapy is typically preferred for treatment.

The third sort of ovarian cancer i.e. the stromal cell cancer is typically slow-growing in nature. A majority of such cases are treatable by surgery alone.

Rare Gynecological Cancers:

Some rarer sorts of gynecological cancers are:

1. Vulvar cancer:

Vulvar cancer may be a rare sort of gynecological cancer and it affects the external female genitals. It always occurs in elderly women and is definitely identifiable by the subsequent symptoms:

  • Red, pink, or white bumps having wart-like surface.
  • Pain or burning sensation while urinating.
  • Bleeding not related to menstruation.
  • Presence of white and rough patch within the region.
  • A persistent open sore or ulcer.

Vulvar cancer may be a highly curable sort of gynecological cancer. In most cases, radical surgery is sufficient to treat vulvar cancer but some cases may require chemotherapy and radiotherapy also .

2. Vaginal cancer:

Vaginal cancer is one among the rarest sorts of gynecological cancer. It always affects women over 50 years aged and in most cases, HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection is liable for cancer. The symptoms are:

  • Presence of a clear mass.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
  • Pain during and after intercourse.

Similar to vulvar cancer, many cases of vaginal cancers are treatable with radical surgery while others may require radiotherapy and chemotherapy.